In Aotearoa New Zealand, people have differences in health that are not only avoidable but unfair and unjust. Equity recognises different people with different levels of advantage require different approaches and resources to get equitable health outcomes. While equity is an essential part of a functioning health system, by itself it does not provide the full picture. Health systems must also be performing to the expected levels. The Equity and Performance Matrix intertwines both measures so that one cannot be considered without the other, essentially elevating equity to a tier one measure.