Frequently asked questions
HPV is a common virus spread through sexual activity. There are many different types of HPV, some of which are high-risk for the possibility of developing cancer, and some which are low-risk. Almost all cervical cancer is caused by genital infection with HPV. High-risk types of HPV can cause cell changes in the cervix which, if not treated, can lead to cervical cancer.
It is important to remember that a cervical screening test is not a test for cancer.
HPV infection is very common. About four out of five people have an HPV infection at some time in their lives. For most women who develop an HPV infection it will disappear on its own and not develop into cervical cancer.
HPV immunisation is delivered through school based immunisation programmes and is also available through your family doctor.
From 1 January 2017 HPV immunisation is funded for everyone aged 9–26 years (inclusive), including boys and young men.
HPV immunisation is free for all children under 18 years regardless of their immigration status, however in order to receive a funded full vaccine course non-resident adults over 18 years of age must have commenced the vaccine prior to turning 18.
With HPV immunisation, up to 90% of cervical cancers can be prevented.
Not all the HPV types that cause cervical cancer are in the vaccine, so women who have been vaccinated need to continue with regular cervical screening.
Women with autoimmune deficiencies (eg, who have received organ transplants, undergone chemotherapy, or who are HIV-positive) qualify for free HPV immunisation at any age.
Please visit the Ministry’s HPV immunisation webpage for more information.
Since the National Cervical Screening Programme was set up in 1990, the number of new cases of cervical cancer detected has decreased by around 50% and the number of women who die from cervical cancer has declined by about 60%.
International research has found that HPV primary screening is accurate and detects more women at risk of developing abnormal cell changes than the current testing method using cytology. HPV primary screening means that a cervical screen sample is first tested for the presence of HPV.
Women with a negative HPV test are less likely to develop abnormal cell changes in the next few years compared to women with a negative cytology test. This is because the HPV test is more sensitive than cytology. Women can be confident that a negative HPV test means they are at very low risk of developing abnormal cells that may lead to cervical cancer within the next five years. This means that a screening interval of five years is safe.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization have endorsed HPV testing as the primary method for cervical screening. Pilot studies have been undertaken in other countries and findings show that HPV primary screening is more sensitive than cytology. Countries changing to HPV primary screening, include England, Australia, and the Netherlands.
When planning the move to HPV primary screening in New Zealand, the Ministry of Health (the Ministry) commissioned research using New Zealand and international data. That research shows that HPV primary screening will be more effective for women than the current cytology test. This is true both for women who have been immunised against HPV and those who have not. Compared to the current screening programme the model predicted:
- cervical cancer incidence will be reduced by a further 15% in unvaccinated women and 12% in vaccinated women
- cervical cancer mortality will be reduced by a further 16% in unvaccinated women and 12% in vaccinated women.
The best way to protect against the HPV infection is to get immunised. Until such time as the new programme starts, the best way to protect against cervical cancer is to be immunised against HPV and have 3-yearly cervical screening for the early detection of abnormal cervical cells.
Women aged 25 to 69 years will be offered HPV primary screening.
HPV infection and the cell changes associated with it are common in women under the age of 25, particularly those who have not been immunised against HPV. In younger women, these infections commonly disappear on their own without needing treatment. Screening women under the age of 25 could lead to over diagnosis and over treatment.
In women of child-bearing age, treatment for cervical abnormalities does not affect the chance of getting pregnant, although studies suggest that treatment can be associated with an increased risk of pre-term labour or miscarriage in the second trimester of pregnancy. This risk is small, but the benefits of early treatment of cell changes and prevention of cervical cancer far outweighs the risks. Treatment is not undertaken unless it’s considered to be absolutely necessary.
Until such time as HPV primary screening is implemented, HPV tests need to meet the current Guidelines for Cervical Screening in New Zealand.
The most noticeable change for women will be that cervical screening will only be needed once every five years as opposed to every three years.
Your smear taker will take a sample just as before. What will change is the way the sample is tested in the laboratory. The sample taken by your smear taker will first be tested for the presence of HPV.
Women who test positive for the high risk HPV types (called HPV types 16 and 18) will be referred to colposcopy services. The laboratory will automatically perform a cytology test to assist the colposcopist with their clinical decision making.
Women with other types of high-risk HPV will automatically have cytology performed on their samples to determine whether they are high or moderate risk for abnormal cell changes and to help doctors make the best assessment and treatment decisions.
The diagram below illustrates the cervical screening pathway.
Until the programme changes, women should continue to get their cervical cytology samples taken when they are due and should continue to be immunised against HPV if they are eligible.
A key priority for the Ministry of Health is to improve access to cervical screenings for women who have never been screened or who have less cervical screening tests than recommended. The Ministry would like to see all women screened.
Extra support for women who have trouble accessing services is available. For more information go to the Ministry of Health’s National Cervical Screening Programme webpage.
If a woman is concerned about symptoms she should see her doctor as soon as possible. The doctor may take a cervical smear and refer for further clinical assessment by a specialist gynaecologist.
Symptoms to watch for include unusual bleeding between periods, an unpleasant smelly vaginal discharge and/or discomfort, pain or bleeding during or after sex.
In the future it is possible that some women will be able to take their own sample for HPV testing. There are still questions to address regarding how self-sampling would work in New Zealand and how women would be supported for any follow up testing or treatment required.
The Ministry of Health is funding further research about the acceptability and feasibility of self-sampling in New Zealand and is also investigating the effectiveness of different self-sampling devices.
Any self-sample test needs to be as safe and effective as a sample collected by a smear taker.
It is very likely that the number of cytology tests undertaken in New Zealand will reduce over time. Skilled cytology staff will still be needed to analyse cytology samples as all women who have a positive HPV test will also have a cytology test (reflex test).
As the changes are implemented there may be some temporary increase in volumes for laboratory and gynaecology services.
More work is being done to understand the impact on the health workforce.
The most important consideration is the opportunity to reduce the number of women who get cervical cancer and who die from it. The decision to move to HPV primary screening is based on evidence that it reduces the number of women who get cervical cancer and those who die from it.